Female Russian Peasants Bibliography


Query From Anne Livingstone-Current makend1@pop.uky.edu 11 Dec 1998

I wonder if anyone can guide me to some references, articles, books, etc, works on the topic of Russian peasant women in the nineteenth century? The Russian proverb "a hen is not a bird, a woman is not a person" only shows how little was thought about the peasant woman in Russia, despite the heavy workload she bore and how essential her labor was to the survival of the family. I am trying to do the first of my two Masters' theses on this subject. I have some books and articles by Steven Hoch and David Ransel, both of whom have been most helpful, but I wondered if any subscribers to H-Women could point me to other sources. I am particularly interested in health, birth practices, fertility, infant mortality and abortion as this ties in with a paper I did last year on the current situation in Russia. I will be working on the same theme for the Soviet period next year. I do not read Russian, unfortunately, but I do read French, so either French or English translations of Russian papers works. Can anyone assist me in this? I would be grateful for suggestions and pointers.

***[Ed. Note:...although you specifically seek information on the 19th century for the moment, I can add that David Ransel is doing some superb work on mid-wives, abortion, and rural reproduction for the Stalinist era. Bud Burkhard]

****[Ed. Note...our sincere thanks to June Farris, who provided most of the following bibliography.]

Responses:

From June Pachuta Farria jpf3@midway.uchicago.edu 14 Dec 1998

In response to your query about information about Russian women peasants in 19th century Russia (sources in English), I have excerpted the following items from my bibliography on pre-1917 Russian Women and the Family. I suspect you may have already reviewed most of these titles, but there might be a few of which you are not yet aware. There are, of course, many, many more citations to the various aspects of your study in Russian, but you have indicated that you cannot read Russian, so I have eliminated those citations. Since the topic seems to be one you will be working on in various ways in the future, you may also want to occasionally review the semi-annual bibliography of materials on women in Russian which I mount on our library's web page. (New lists are compiled every February and July.) Most of these materials can be borrowed from the University of Chicago (or often, other libraries) on Interlibrary= Loan. The address for New Acquisitions on Women and the Family is <http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/LibInfo/SourcesBySubject/Slavic/inside.html> http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/LibInfo/SourcesBySubject/Slavic/inside.html I hope the citations below are of some help to you in your research. Good luck!

Russian Women Peasants Select List of English Sources

Arora, Mandakini. Boundaries, Transgressions, Limits Peasant Women and Gender Roles in Tver Province, 1861-1914. 257p. (Ph.d dissertation, Duke University, 1995)
An examination of the structure and norms of peasant life in the post-emancipation period, focusing primarily on the division of labor (agriculture, crafts and trades, domestic chores, childcare), property relations and marriage rituals in a patriarchal society. Factors such as economic dislocation, shifting sex roles, surrogate heads of households and lack of property rights for women are discussed in detail, as is the status of women in the peasant household, particularly as demonstrated through marriage rituals. The final chapter discusses the role of women and the scope of their activities in the peasant resistance to their social, economic and political situation in the last decades of the Russian Empire..

Clements, Barbara Evens, Barbara Alpern Engel, and Christine D. Worobec, Eds. _Russia's Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation_ (California, 1991)

Czap, Peter, Jr. Marriage and the Peasant Joint Family in the Era of Serfdom,In The Family in Imperial Russia New Lines of historical Research. David L. Ransel, ed. Urbana, IL University of Illinois Press, 1978, pp. 103-23.

Engel, Barbara Alpern. "Peasant Morality and Pre-Marital Relations in Late 19th Century Russia." Journal of Social History 23,4(1990)695-714.

Engel, Barbara Alpern _Between the Fields and the City: Women, Work, and Family in Russia, 1861-1914 (Cambridge, 1996)

Engel, Barbara Alpern. Socially Deviant Women and the Russian Peasant Community, 1861-1914,in Gender Restructuring In Russian Studies Conference Papers--Helsinki, August 1992. Marianne Liljestrm, Eila Mentysaari, Arja Rosenholm, eds. Tampere, Finland University of Tampere, 1993, pp. 53-63.

Engel, Barbara Alpern. The Woman Side Male Outmigration and the Family Economy in Kostroma Province, in The World of the Russian Peasant Post-Emancipation Culture and Society. Ben Eklof and Stephen Frank, eds. Boston, MA Unwin Hyman, 1990, pp. 65-80.

Engelstein, Laura. The Keys to Happiness Sex and the Search for Modernity in Fin-de-Siecle Russia. Ithaca and London Cornell University Press, 1992. 461p.
An investigation of the meaning and development of the concepts of sexuality and gender, and the influence of these concepts on the social, political, and cultural life in late Imperial Russia. Part One, chronologically covering the decades just previous to the reforms of the 1860s up to the 1905 Revolution, traces the activities of the legal and medical professions as they tried to effect a civic revolution in Russian society. The domestic relationships of men and women and their sexual behavior (including sodomy, prostitution, rape,sexual crime, female sexual deviance and the medical and social problems of syphilis), both within the legal family structure and outside its jurisdiction, are examined in detail. Part Two, covering the years 1890-1914, focuses on the interaction of diverse cultural and political groups as they debated and defined various aspects of the "sexual question" (polovoi vopros) in an extremely unstable political and social environment. Eroticism, sexual perversion, sexual aspects of anti-semitism, and problems related to the emergence of the modern "new" woman (such as abortion) are topics examined by the author, particularly as they were reflected in contemporary literature, both in serious fiction and popular, mass-produced works. The impact of the works of Mikhail Artsybashev and Anastasiia Verbitskaia, particularly The Keys to Happiness= (Kliuchi schast'ia), and others form the basis of this discussion.=20 Bibliography. Index.

Farnsworth, Beatrice. "The Litigious Daughter-in-Law Family Relations in Rural Russia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 89-106.

Farnsworth, Barbara and Lynne Viola, Eds. _Russian Peasant Women_(Oxford,1992)

Frierson, Cathy A. Peasant Family Divisions and the Commune,in Land Commune and Peasant Community in Russia. Roger Bartlett, ed. New York St. Martins Press, 1990, pp. 303-20.

Frierson, Cathy A. Razdel The Peasant Family Divided. Russian Review 46(1987)35-52.

Frierson, Cathy A. "Razdel The Peasant Family Divided," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 73-88.

Glickman, Rose L. "The Peasant Woman as Healer," in Russia's Women Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation. Edited by Barbara Evans Clements,

Barbara Alpern Engel, Christine D. Worobec. Berkeley University of California Press, 1991, pp. 148-162.

Glickman, Rose L. "Peasant Women and Their Work," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 54-72.

Glickman, Rose L. "Women and the Peasant Commune," in Land Commune and Peasant Community in Russia. Roger Bartlett, ed. New York St. Martin's Press, 1990, pp. 321-338.

Listova, T. A. A Program for Collection of Material on the Customs and Rituals Associated with Childbirth,in Russian Traditional Culture Religion, Gender, and Customary Law. Edited by Marjorie Mandelstam Balzer Armonk, NY; London, England M. E. Sharpe, 1992, pp. 253-61.

Hutton, Marcelline Judith. Russian and Soviet Women, 1897-1939 Dreams, Struggles, and Nightmares. 2v. (Ph.d dissertation, University of Iowa, 1986.) Classifying women into five separate classes and occupational group (peasants, industrial workers, domestic servants, mid-level service employees and professional workers), and using the 1897 Imperial Russian census and the 1926 and 1939 Soviet censuses as a primary basis of comparison, the author traces the socio-political and economic-educational development of women in pre-1917 Russia and the Soviet Union of the 1920s and 1930s, relating their situation to that of their female contemporaries in Germany, France and England.

Matossian, Mary. "The Peasant Way of Life," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 11-40.

McDermid, Jane. "Victorian Views of Peasant Women and Patriarchy in Russia." Coexistence 29,2(June 1992)187-97.

Meehan-Waters, Brenda. "To Save Oneself Russian Peasant Women and the Development of Women's Religious Communities in Pre-revolutionary Russia," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 121-144.

Pallot, Judith "Women's Domestic Industries in Moscow Province, 1890-1900." _Russia's Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation_. Eds. B. E. Clements, B.A. Engel and C.D. Worobec. (Berkeley and Loas Angeles: U of California Press, 1991)**Also** in same book...Engel,Barbara Alpern: "Transformation versus Tradition"

Pushkareva, N. L. and M. N. Shmeleva. "The Contemporary Russian Peasant Wedding," in Introduction to Soviet Ethnography. Edited by S. Dunn and E. Dunn. Berkeley Highgate Road Social Science Research Station, 1974, v. 1, pp. 343-62.

Ramer, Samuel C. "Childbirth and Culture Midwifery in the Nineteenth-Century Russian Countryside," in Russian Peasant Women. Edited by Beatrice Farnsworth, Lynne Viola. New York; Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 107-120.

Ransel, David _Mothers of Misery: Child Abandonment in Russia_

Ransel, David L. Abandoned Children of Imperial Russia Village Fosterage. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 50,4(1976)501-10.

Ransel, David. "Abandonment and Fosterage of Unwanted Children The Women of the Foundling System," in The Family in Imperial Russia New Lines of Historical Research. David Ransel, ed. Urbana University of Illinois Press, 1978, pp.

Ransel, David L. "Infant-Care Cultures in the Russian Empire," in Russia's Women Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation. Edited by Barbara Evans Clements, Barbara Alpern Engel, Christine D. Worobec. Berkeley University of California Press, 1991, pp. 113-132.

Rudolph, Richard "The European Family and Economy: Central Themes and Issues" _Journal of Family History_, V.17, N.2 (119-138), 1992.

Rudolph, Richard L. "Family Structure and Proto-Industrialization in Russia," _The Journal of Economic History_ 40:111-118, 1980a.

Tian-Shanskaia, Olga Semyonova _Village Life in Late Tsarist Russia_ David Ransel, Ed., (U of Indiana Press, 1993.)

Vlasova, I. V. A Program for Gathering Information on the Peasant Commune and Family Structure and Composition of Community and Family Groupings Land and Property Relationships (On the Example of the Provinces of the European North),in Russian Traditional Culture Religion, Gender, and Customary Law. Edited by Marjorie Mandelstam Balzer. Armonk, NY; London, England M. E. Sharpe, 1992, pp. 265-69.

Wilbur, E.M. (1983) 'Was Russian Peasant Agriculture Really That Impoverished?' _Journal of Economic History_43, 137-44

Worobec, Christine D. "Victims or Actors? Russian Peasant Women and Patriarchy," in Peasant Economy, Culture, and Politics of European Russia, 1800-1921. Esther Kingston-Mann and Timothy Mixter, eds. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 1991, pp. 177-206.

Worobec, Christine D. _Peasant Russia: Family and Community in the PostEmancipation Period_ (Princeton: Princeton U Press, 1991)

Other Suggestions:

The Russian Social History Yearbook 1997 (Sotsial'naia Istoriia Ezhegodnik)1997

Moskva: ROSSPEN, 1998 includes 3 articles by Natal'ia L'vovna Pushkareva, devoted to women's history.The articles are in Russian. Abstracts in English can be found at:
http://www.iisg.n1~womhist/rusyear.html http://www.iisg.n1/~womhist/rusyearb.html http://www.iisg.n1/~womhst/