Japanese Architecture and Planning
(Cities 360)
Growth and Structure of Cities Program

Carola Hein
chein@brynmawr.edu
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA

Fall 2000

SYLLABUS

Aim
The built environment in Japan does not resemble its American or European counterparts. Visitors often characterize it as visually chaotic, while recent observers praise the lively traditional neighborhoods. This course will explore characteristics of Japanese cities, their history and presence, and examine the particular cultural, political, economic and social context of urban form in Japan. The course is aimed at a better understanding of Japanese cities and should point towards lessons in urban organization that recent movements such as the "New Urbanism" might learn. Apart from giving an introduction to Japanese architecture and planning, the course is also designed to help students develop their analytical skills, their ability to read and write.

Requirements
This course requires active class participation and reading (20% of final grades). Weekly summaries of readings and discussion questions will be prepared in assigned groups. Each group will e-mail them to Carola Hein and the class each Monday by 9am. They will be corrected and graded. Two group assignments are to be presented on paper and in class. (group works 20%) There will be no additional assignments later. Each student will give one presentation on an assigned topic (20%). A final paper will allow students to research an individually chosen topic related to the class. An oral presentation and final paper are required (40%). All these should be submitted in a timely fashion.

Textbooks
You should buy the required books. These books and some other major texts are also available on reserve.


CLASS SCHEDULE AND ASSIGNMENTS

I.   INTRODUCTION
(Explanation of syllabus and readings)

1.   Japanese Urban Life Today - Impressions and Comparisons
(Sept. 4th)

Required readings:
  • START:   Taniguchi, Jun'ichiro, In Praise of Shadows, Leete’s Island Books, 1977


II. JAPANESE URBAN SPACE IN A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

2.   Traditional Japanese Architecture, Cities and Villages I
(Sept. 11th)

Required reading:
  • Karan, P. P.: "The City in Japan" and Mather, Cotton, "Urban Landscapes of Japan," in Karan, P. P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998, p. 12-39; p. 40-55
  • Inaji, Toshirô, The Garden as Architecture, Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, London, 1998, p. 3-80
Further references:
  • Steinhardt, Nancy, Chinese Imperial City Planning, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
  • Schinz, Alfred, The Magic Square, Menges, Stuttgart, London, 1996.
  • Jinnai, Hidenobu, Tokyo, A Spatial Anthropology, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995.

Assignment I:

  1. Form groups (3 students)
  2. Read and discuss:
    • Ishida, Yorifusa, "Japanese Equivalents for French 'Quartier' in Professional and Popular Languages," in: Kogakuin Daigaku Kenkyûjohô  n 81, p. 213-220
    • Berque, Augustin, Japan, Nature, Artifice and Japanese Culture, Pilkington Press, 1997, p. 15-46
  3. Discuss meaning of words such as metropolis, city, neighborhood, community, suburb, plaza, street in the Western (and Japanese) context. (Each group chooses one or two terms)
  4. Prepare 2-3 page summary of your definitions for Week 3, present and discuss


3.   Traditional Japanese Architecture, Cities and Villages II
(Sept. 18th)

Readings:
  • Coaldrake, William H., Architecture and Authority in Japan, Routledge Japanese Studies Series, London 1996:
  • Ch. 3: "Great Halls of Religion and State," p. 52-80;
  • Ch. 4: "Heian Palaces and Kamakura Temples," p. 81-103;
  • Ch. 5: "Castles," p. 104-137

FINISH:  Taniguchi, Jun'ichiro, In Praise of Shadows, Leete’s Island Books, 1977


4.   Views of Japan
(Sept. 25th)

Required reading:
  • Smith II, Henry D.  Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. New York: George Braziller/The Brooklyn Museum, 1986, p. 9-15
  • Lewis, Martin; Wigen, Kären, The Myth of Continents, A Critique of Metageography, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1997, p. 47-103
  • START:  Barthes, Roland, Empire of Signs, Hill and Wang, 1982

Supplementary reading:

  • Morse, Edward, Japanese Homes and their Surroundings, Dover Publications, New York, 1961 (original: 1886) (Intro and - 14, 45-77, 108-183, 234-272)
  • Friedman, Mildred, Tokyo: Form and Spirit, Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, New York, Abrams, 1986.

Assignment II:

  1. Find maps or drawings of a Japanese city (or city part) and a foreign city (or city part) from the same period.
  2. Compare and discuss your findings.
  3. Present in class Week 6.
  4. Give your materials and outline to Carola Hein by Friday Oct. 6th.


5.   The Modernization of Japan in the Meiji Era and the Introduction of Western Style Architecture and Urban Planning
(Oct. 2nd)

Required reading:

  • Okamoto, Satoshi, "Destruction and Reconstruction of Ginza town" in Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu, Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment, Sagami Shobo, p. 51-84
  • Stewart, David B., The Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture, 1868 to the present, Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York, 1987, p. 13-62
  • Alofsin, Anthony, Frank Lloyd Wright, Europe and Beyond, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999, p. 24-44


6.   Taisho/Showa Period: Japan as a World Power - From Tange Via Maki to Ando and Beyond
(Oct. 9th)

Required reading:

  • Yatsuka, Hajime, "Internationalism Versus Regionalism," in: Koshalek, Richard; Smith, Elizabeth A.T., At the End of the Century; One Hundred Years of Architecture, Moca, Los Angeles, 1998, p. 186-198
  • Boyd, Robin, New Directions in Japanese Architecture, George Braziller, New York, 1968, p. 7-33
  • Maki, "Notes on Collective Form," in: Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997 p. 206-217
  • Krier, Alex, "Maki's Quarter of a Century at Hillside Terrace," in: Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997 p. 236-255
  • Banham, Reyner; Suzuki, Hiroyuki, Contemporary Japanese Architecture, New York, Rizzoli, 1985
  • Krstic, Vladimir, "Liquid Constructions, Tokyo and the End of Space," in: Bognar, Botond, Tokyo, World Cities Series, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, p. 38-39

FINISH: Barthes, Roland, Empire of Signs, Hill and Wang, 1982


NO CLASS on Oct. 17th  (Fall Break)

7.   Presentation of attributed topics/outline to be sent to Carola Hein by e-mail until Oct. 19th.
(Oct. 23rd)

(For example: Japanese film, sports, food, literature, anime, sci-fi (cyber-punk) art, photography, theater and dance, transportation, shopping, housing, working in Japanese cities, geomancy, women in Japan, world exhibitions, etc.)

You may choose a topic that is related to your final paper.


III   CASE STUDIES

8. Urban Issues in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe 1:
Social Structures, Reconstruction, Land Use

(Oct. 30th)

Required reading:
  • Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child, "Together and Equal: Place Stratification in Osaka," in: Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998, p. 106-133
  • Callies, David, "Urban Land Use and Control in the Japanese City: A Case Study of Hiroshima, Osaka, and Kyoto," in: Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998 p. 134-155
  • Sugimoto, Toshimasa, "Atomic Bombing and Restoration of Hiroshima," in: Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu, Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment, Sagami Shobo, p. 17-38
  • Hein, Carola, "Visionary Plans and Planners," in Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Eds.) Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Curzon, (6/2001 projected)

Paper topics due: October 30th


9. Urban Issues in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe 2:
 Neighborhood Planning, Community Design, Recent Trends in Architecture

(Nov. 6th)

Readings:
  • Hein, Carola, "Urban Planning Versus Community Building," in Archis 5/99, p 44-51
  • Enders, Siegfried; Gutschow, Niels, Hozon: Architectural and Urban Conservation in Japan, Edition Axel Menges, 1998, p. 12-16, p. 22-24, p. 28-59


10. Planning and Architecture in Tokyo I
(Nov. 13th)

Required reading:

  • Cybriwsky, Roman, Tokyo, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, etc. 1998, p. - 99

Preliminary Outline due: Nov. 13th


11. Planning and Architecture in Tokyo II
(Nov. 20th)

Required reading:

  • Cybriwsky, Roman, Tokyo, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, etc. 1998, p. 100-end


12. Presentation of Paper Topics
(Nov. 27th)


13. Tokyo and the Regions - Decentralization Politics
(Dec. 4th)

Required reading:
  • Ashihara Yoshinobu, The Hidden Order: Tokyo through the Twentieth Century, Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, 1989.

  • Rimmer, Peter J., "Reshaping Western Pacific Rim Cities," in: Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child, Japanese Cities in the World Economy, Temple University Press, 1993, p. 257-279


14. Japan - A Model for the Future? Conclusions/Discussion
(Dec. 11th)

Final paper due: December 11th


READING AND RESERVE LIST
Required reading:
(reserve and bookshop)
Especially recommended as background reading:
Reischauer, Edwin O.; Craig, Albert M.
Japan, Tradition and Transformation, (revised edition)
Houghton Mifflin Company, USA, 1989
Recommended for background reading and reference: (reserve)
Alofsin, Anthony
Frank Lloyd Wright, Europe and Beyond
University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999
Banham, Reyner; Suzuki, Hiroyuki
Contemporary Japanese Architecture
New York, Rizzoli, 1985
Barthes, Roland
Empire of Signs
Hill and Wang, 1982
Befu, Harumi: Eades, J. (eds)
Globalization and Social Change in Japan
Trans Pacific Press, 2000
Bestor, Theodore
Neighborhood Tokyo
Stanford University Press, Stanford California, 1989
Bognar, Botond
Tokyo
World Cities Series
John Wiley & Sons, 1997
Boyd, Robin
New Directions in Japanese Architecture
George Braziller, New York, 1968
Coaldrake, William H.
Architecture and Authority in Japan
Routledge Japanese Studies Series, London 1996
Cobbing, Andrew
The Japanese Discovery of Victorian Britain, Early Travel Encounters in the Far West
Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1998
Drexler, Arthur
The Architecture of Japan
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1955
Enders, Siegfried; Gutschow, Niels
Hozon: Architectural and Urban Conservation in Japan
Edition Axel Menges, 1998
Finn, Dallas
Meiji Revisited, The Sites of Victorian Japan
Weatherhill, New York, Tokyo, 1995
Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Ed.)
Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo
Curzon, (6/2001 projected)
Fowler, Edward
San'ya Blues, Laboring Life in Contemporary Tokyo
Cornell University Press, Cornell, 1996
Friedman, Mildred
Tokyo: Form and Spirit
Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, New York, Abrams, 1986
Fujimori, Terunobu; Wan, Tan
A Comprehensive Study of East Asian Architecture and Urban Planning: 1840-1945
Chikumashobô, Tokyo, 1996
Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child
Japanese Cities in the World Economy
Temple University Press, 1993
Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu (Ed.)
Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment
Sagami Shobo, 2000
Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects
New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997
Hein, Carola
"Politieposten In Tokio/Police Stations in Tokyo"
Archis 8/96
Hein, Carola
"Prestige en vermaak, Grands projets in Japan," "Prestige and diversion, Grand projects in Japan"
Archis 2/98
Hein, Carola
"Urban Planning Versus Community Building"
Archis 5/99
Inaji, Toshirô
The Garden as Architecture
Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, London, 1998
Jinnai, Hidenobu
Tokyo, A Spatial Anthropology
University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995
Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin
The Japanese City
The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998
Knabe, Christopher; Noennig, Joerg Rainer
Shaking the Foundations. Japanese Architects in Dialogue
Prestel, München, London, New York, 1999
Koshalek, Richard; Smith, Elizabeth A.T.
At the End of the Century; One Hundred Years of Architecture
Moca, Los Angeles, 1998
Lewis, Martin; Wigen, Kären
The Myth of Continents, A Critique of Metageography
University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1997
Metzger-Court, Sarah; Pascha, Werner (Eds.)
Japan's Socio-Economic Evolution: Continuity and Change
Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1996
Morse, Edward
Japanese Homes and their Surroundings
Dover Publications, New York, 1961 (original: 1886)
Nish, Ian
The Iwakura Mission in America and Europe, A New Assessment
Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1998
Ross, Michael Franklin
Beyond Metabolism: The New Japanese Architecture
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978
Sassen, Saskia
The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo
Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1991
Schinz, Alfred
The Magic Square
Menges, Stuttgart, London, 1996
Seidensticker, Edward
Low City, High City
Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1991
Seidensticker, Edward
Tokyo Rising
Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo, 1991
Shapira, Philip; Masser, Ian; Edgington, David W.
Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan
Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1994
Shelton, Barrie
Learning from the Japanese City
E & FN Spon, 1999
Smith II, Henry D.
Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
New York: George Braziller/The Brooklyn Museum, 1986
Steinhardl, Nancy
Chinese Imperial City Planning
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990
Stewart, David B.
The Making Of A Modern Japanese Architecture, 1868 To The Present
Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York, 1987
Taniguchi, Jun'ichiro
In Praise of Shadows
Leete’s Island Books, 1977
Taut, Bruno
Cities and People of Japan
1936
"Tokyo - Hope and Recovery; Urban Civilization and Environment"
Process: Architecture n. 129
Yamashita Kazumasa
Japanese Maps of the Edo Period
Kashiwashobo, Tokyo 1998


Syllabus prepared for archive 11 Jun 2001. Updated 9 July 2004.